Frequently Asked Questions & Detailed Information

Yes, we realise you still have a lot of unanswered questions about the IRBM system and the PReMaS solution.  We have consulted our clients and key stakeholders about their questions on or related to the PReMaS and have listed them below to help answer any question/s you may still have about the IRBM system and the PReMaS software solution.

If the information below still does not answer your questions, please feel free to contact us at:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Q1     What is the IRBM system?

IRBM is "Integrated Results Based Management" which is a contemporary version of the older Results Based Management (RBM) system approach to public sector performance management practiced by developed countries and prescribed by all development partners. Its major components cover several key components which are fully integrated with and support each other.  These components are: strategic results and/or development planning, results based budgeting, results-based personnel performance management, results-based M&E, and last but most importantly, the evidence-based decision support system or management information system - all of which are encapsulated within an e-government environment. These are critical components in any development effort and failure to address them systematically in an integrated manner renders all development efforts less than effective.  This is evident from lessons learnt from development initiatives across all countries and especially developing countries.

Q2     What is the difference between RBM and IRBM?

RBM focuses on managing for results with emphases on results of operations rather than on inputs, expenditures, processes, and outputs alone as done under traditional management. It is an useful management tool for ensuring focus on substantive results of operations.  IRBM is also based on the RBM principles but with a major difference. It adopts an integrated approach to ensure that the organization and its results are integrated vertically and horizontally at all levels and all functional components. The IRBM system is fully compliant with the HoVeR PrincipleTM which prescribes tight vertical and horizontal integration of contributory factors for the successful achievement of outcomes.

Q3     HoVeR Principle? What is that and why is that important for IRBM?

The  HoVeR PrincipleTM is a unique but critical set of principles that ensure that development initiatives and RBM efforts take into account and integrate key success factors within both vertical and horizontal relationships in development efforts. Failure to take into account the HoVeR Principle typically renders development efforts to become ineffective and incomplete. Integration has been proven to be a key success ingredient in development management and is especially crucial for developing countries that are struggling with their complex national development efforts.

Q4    How does IRBM relate to the Managing for Development Results (MFDR) system prescribed by all development partners?

The IRBM system is fully compliant with the MfDR principles and even beyond.  The MfDR prescribes that all development efforts in countries must be fully focused on results and this is an important criteria.  The IRBM system is fully compliant with the MfDR requirements and more.  Unlike the MfDR which is more prescriptive, the IRBM system comes complete with all relevant tools, templates, and systems to support systematic and structured implementation within a country (for whole-of-government results based management) or within an organization. Adopting and implementing an IRBM system virtually assures a fully MfDR compliant country or organization.

Q5     Is the IRBM system suitable for whole-of-government or an individual organization and/or Programme within an organization?

The IRBM system is extremely versatile.  It can be used for an organization or a Programme under it. It is also best used for an entire country on an whole-of-government basis. It is especially tailored to assist developing countries to transform from a traditional input and process driven management approach to a fully MfDR compliant system.  For countries that are not quite ready to transform the entire government to become IRBM compliant, the system allows for a well structured step-by-step transformation process where individual Ministries/agencies can be transformed in stages with full compatibility to become a whole-of-government integrated RBM system after 1-2 years.

Q6     Is there is a mechanism and process for certifying a country or organization to be IRBM compliant?

Yes there is.  The IRBM system is a fully structured and integrated system that comprises key components under a strategic performance management agenda.  The entire IRBM system, its processes, components, and features are fully tested and certified by CeDRE International and its partner Universities. The entire IRBM system has been vigorously tested and certified by our partner Universities in Malaysia and South Africa. Countries or organizations that adopt the IRBM system and wish to be certified IRBM compliant, can opt to have their IRBM system audited and certified as IRBM compliant by our external assessors.  A country or organization can also choose to have the IRBM system components certified one by one as they complete its adoption and implementation.  For more details on the certification process, please contact us at:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Q7     Who carryies out this certification process and how do we know it is credible?

The IRBM system and the accompanying PReMaS software solution are registered under the Malaysian Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) agency which goes through a stringent quality verification process before registering any product or system as MSC compliant. CeDRE International, the IRBM system, and the PReMaS Solution (called IRBM Suite 3.0) are fully verified and registered with the MDEC authority in Malaysia, thus ensuring quality and integrity of the system and product.  The Malaysian government has also migrated from its RBM system introduced in 1990 to the full IRBM system and the related PReMaS solution for its whole-of-government outcome-based performance management system since 2009.  Further to the above, the IRBM system and the PReMaS solutions are also subjected to stringent academic rigor through our partner Universities in Malaysia and South Africa. Finally, the certification process for IRBM compliance is subjected to an audit and ratification process by our partner Universities to ensure independent verification and certification.  This certification is also subjected to annual audits and certification maintenance process to ensure continuous quality assurance.

Q8     Why should a country or organization adopt the IRBM system?

The IRBM is a contemporary performance management system that literally assures improved strategic results planning and development results all round when fully implemented. It is fully MfDR compliant and more. Developing countries in particular are best suited to adopt the full IRBM system to help them to become fully MfDR compliant and in conformance with requirements of international donors and development partners. Adopting the IRBM system ensures that a developing country will be able to meet the results compliance requirements on development planning, budgeting, personnel performance, M&E, and evidence-based decision making which are all crucial components of donor requirements.  Similarly, an organization wishing to move to a results-based system is best assured of getting there within the shortest time possible by adopting the IRBM system and the accompanying PReMaS software solution. Additionally, a country can improve its SDG planning, linkages, and results performance using the IRBM system. The IRBM system systematically identifies and links the SDG goals and targets with the substantive performance plan of each Ministry and to the national medium term development plan.

Q9    Should we adopt the IRBM system first or the PReMaS Software Solution first?

The process works both ways.  Ideally, the adoption of PReMaS is best done after you have introduced IRBM for your organization. This is because the adoption of the PReMaS requires content knowledge on RBM and related matters which are capacities built under IRBM system adoption.  However, it is also possible to adopt and implement the PReMaS system along with the PReMaS solution simultaneously. Under this approach, concurrent content management capacity-building is incorporated as part of the PReMaS introduction to ensure that key personnel are able to utilize the PReMaS to fulfill all IRBM functions.

Q10   Is the adoption of IRBM recommended for developing countries?

Yes, it most certainly is.  The IRBM system is best suited for developing countries as it helps the country address all of its traditional management challenges such as with results-based development planning, budgeting, personnel management, M&E, and decision-support systems.  In fact, it would be safe to say that these are the key challenges of developing countries and which conventional approaches and systems have not been able to address in a holistic or sustainable manner. The IRBM system, coupled with the support PReMaS software solution, are jointly able to help transform a developing country from the traditional management mode to a results-based and IRBM compliant country within the space of as little as 12 months or a maximum of 36 months.

As mentioned earlier, the IRBM system will ensure better linkages and success for the implementation of the SDGs. Under the IRBM system, every Ministry/Department/agency and lower level jurisdictions (Provinces/Districts etc) are systematically linked to the SDGs through a results-based hierarchical structure and system, complete with a results-based M&E system. Developing countries and/or organizations implementing the SDGs are assured of systematic development results when they use the IRBM system and integrated components.

Q11   Is the IRBM System suitable for State-Owned-Enterprises and Local Governments?

Yes, the IRBM system is suitable for all kinds of organizations, including State-Owned-Enterprises, Local Government, State governments, District governments and even private sector entities.  For example, the IRBM system has been adopted by the Islamic Financial Standards Board (IFSB) since 2012. 

For State-owned-Enterprises, the IRBM system is ideal as it ensures that SOEs are fuly geared to not only improve their performance but also to systematically contribute to both sector and national development priorities. As is common knowledge, SOEs are often faced with severe performance issues and in developing countries, they pose a serious fiscal policy challenge. The IRBM system, with its strong focus on integration, ensures systematic strategic results planning and links to the budget, personnel performance, monitoring and evaluation, and strategic decision-making.  The IRBM system and the accompanying PReMaS enterprise software solution are key to improving the performance of any SOE.

Q12   Can we apply the IRBM System for Local Governments and Local Government Enterprises?

As in the case of SOEs, the IRBM system is also perfect for improving the strategic results planning and performance of local governments as well enterprises under them.  Local governments, with their strong service delivery orientation, would benefit immensely from the adoption of the IRBM system and all components under it.  The strategic results planning provides essential linkages to the higher level sector and national priorities and results.  This again is crucial in developing countries where focus on service delivery is equally important as the contribution of the local government to the sector and national priorities.

 FAQs:  PReMaS - The Performance & Results Management System (PReMaSTM)

Q1     What is the PReMaS?

PReMaS is the acronym for "Performance and Results Management Solution".  It is an integrated software enterprise solution designed exclusively to meet the needs of the IRBM system. It has all the features required by the IRBM system and more.  It contains a range of tools to support the main functions of the IRBM system and is a requisite IT support tool for the IRBM system.

Q2     What functions does the PReMaS contain and why are they useful for an organization and/or a country?

The PReMaS covers all major components under the IRBM system, all of which are strategically integrated with one another:

a.  Strategic Results Planning (for an organization) or Strategic Medium Term Development Planning (for country-based system);

b.  Results-based budgeting

c.  Results-based personnel performance management

d.  Results-based monitoring and executive performance reporting

e.  Results-based and integrated evaluation planning and management

f.  Results-based decision support and management information system.

All of the above are strategiclaly contained within an e-government support environment for improved service delivery within an organization or especially for whole-of-government in a country.

Q3   What is the need to install the PReMas if we have adopted the IRBM system?

The PReMaS offers a complete e-enabled IRBM system solution covering an e-enabled development and/or results planning function to e-enabled budgeting, personnel performance management, M&E, and e-enabled information system for evidence-based decision support. The IRBM system itself is an integrated system with several key components in it - all of which are integrated with one another and with all relevant relationships (vertical and horizontal) built in.  Such a highly inter-related and integrated system needs the support of an e-enabled system and related tools to make the IRBM system more effective and efficient.  Though the IRBM system can be implemented on a manual basis, it is most effective and efficient if supported by the PReMaS software solution.

Q4   Will adopting the PReMaS help to meet the IRBM system requirements? And how does it help me deal with the SDGs?

Yes it will.  Adopting the IRBM system usually requires adoption of the PReMaS software solution to make the IRBM system more efficient.  However, it is also possible to adopt and implement the PReMaS software solution to ensure adoption of the IRBM system.  This is made possible as the PReMaS solution covers all major components of the IRBM System.  Adopting the PReMaS system also assures compliance with all IRBM features, functions, and principles. Adopting the PReMaS will also ensure systematic addressing of the SDG goals, targets, and indicators.

In relation to the SDGs, the PReMaS offers the perfect solution. The IRBM system and the PReMaS solution provides the systema and tools for systematically and logically linking each and every one of the SDG goals, targets and indicators into the strategic results-planning at all levels from the national, sector, Ministry at the central level and the lower jurisdictions at the Provincial, District, and grass-root levels. The system also provides a detailed over view of all SDGs deliverables and their contributors from all levels.  More importantly, the IRBM system and PReMaS application allows systematic linkages both vertically and horizontally in complete compliance with the HoVeR PrincipleTM.

Q5   Does the PReMaS solution offer any other value-added features other than the standard features in IRBM?

The PReMaS solution comes complete with all key components of the IRBM system such as strategic planning, monitoring, and reporting.  It also comes with a complete range of options to add value to the IRBM functions, such as:

a.  results-based budgeting
b.  results-based personnel performance system
c.  results-based evaluation planning and management
d.  policy analysis
e.  problem analysis (policy formulation, performance, evaluation etc)
f.  outcome hierachy analysis (outcome mapping and harvesting)
g.  program logic analysis
h.  program stakeholder/client analysis
i.  problem/needs analysis
j.  risk management/assessment (for performance planning and improvement)
k. project planning and management (for medium term development plan projects)

and a range of other critcail performance management tools.

Q6   What does the basic PReMaS package contain?

The basic PReMaS package covers three core modules:  strategic results planning (for organizations) or strategic medium term development planning (for whole-of-government versions) complete with a results-based performance monitoring framework, performance monitoring, and performance reporting, including executive dashboards on Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).  There are various add-on modules to these basic modules as explained earlier.

Q7    Can the PReMas help us deal with KPIs and results-based Performance Management?

Yes, it does.  The PReMaS solution comes with all relevant tools and more for systematic performance planning using the ProLLTM program logic tool. It helps to systematically identify and link all relevant KPIs for the organization (or the whole government in the case of the whole-of-government version).  These KPIs are well grounded and defensible and come with associated analytical tools such as risk management, variance analysis and tolerance level analysis. The PReMaS ensures that all KPIs are well grounded through an in-built program logic approach and tool.

Q8   What is the ProLL Model and what is its value to IRBM and PReMaS?

The ProLL is the Program Logic and Linkages Model or ProLL ModelTM as it is popularly known in the IRBM and evaluation circles. The ProLL Model is basically an integrated program logic tool designed and developed to support results-based management and especially evidence-based management.  It provides a logical step-by-step process for ensuring that results are logical and defensible using a results-based approach.  It is a requisite for the IRBM system and the PReMaS solution. The PReMaS solution is built entirely on the foundation of program logic using the ProLL and therein lies the strength of the PReMaS solution to support the IRBM system.

Q9    Why is the use of Program Logic under PReMaS important in IRBM?

Program logic is a fundamental program and results planning function.  Typically, organizations tend to design and produce results management agendas that are not well grounded or supported by any form of systematic program logic which then leads to diversions and dilutions of the ensuring intervention strategies and actions. Use of the ProLL Model and its tools ensures that a Program is not only well designed but its results framework and contents are fully defensible and backed by logic.  This then ensures that the intervention program and strategies are well grounded and avoid Type III errors in management. The rntire PReMaS application is driven by program logic and is fully compliant with the ProLL Model.

Q10    How long does it take to fully adopt and implement the PReMaS Solution?

The PReMaS adoption process and time is dependent on the state of readiness of the organization or government at large.  Typically, for an organization that is zero-based in RBM, the PReMaS adoption and implementation may require anywhere from 6-12 months. For an organization that is already results-based, it will only take a maximum of 6 months. For an organization that is fully IRBM compliant, it takes only a short 3 months to adopt and implement the PReMaS. For whole-of-government versions, the process is anywhere between 12 to 36 months depending on the country's RBM readiness.

Q11   We are interested in putting into place Report Cards and Performance Dasahboards for both the organization as well as for government. Is this possible using the PReMaS Solution?

The PReMaS solution provides cutting-edge performance summary tools such as Executive Dashboards and regular Performance Report Cards. Using state-of-the-art visual-graphics, the PReMaS is capable of producing focused informative dashboards for top management and decision-makers.  These dashboards and report cards are built using the results-based M&E system under the IRBM system.  All reports and dashboards are fully automated to ensure seamless actions and a completely paperless process and environment.

Q12    What about legacy systems existing in the organization? How does the PReMaS deal with this?

The PReMaS is a completely customizeable system that can easily interface and link with existing legacy software and/or data systems. Similarly, should there be a need, the data from the PReMaS can also be easily interfaced and integrated with existing legacy systems.


Do you still have question/s that are still not addressed here?  Still unsure about the IRBM and/or PReMaS?  Dont worry...that is normal as you are dealing with the challenge of real-life implementation.

Do contact us directly for more information at:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Thank you.

PReMaS Webmaster

July, 2016




About CeDRE International

CeDRE International is a leading R&D center in monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and integrated results-based management (IRBM) both in Asia and globally. It was first incorporated in Malaysia in 1996 with a corporate name change to CeDRE Malaysia in 2004.  It has branches in Australia, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. More info...

Are you IRBM Compliant?

"The best performing organisations are those characterised by the presence and systematic utilisation of a structured and integrated RBM system including evidence-based decision making".

If your organization or country is not IRBM compliant, consider transforming to become fully IRBM compliant.  Being IRBM compliant enables you to become MfDR compliant - a crucial requirement for all developing countries and air recipients. The IRBM system is also fully backed by an integrated software solution, PReMaS....  More Infor...


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